The famous case of Salomon v. Salomon and Co. Ltd (1897) recognized the principle of a separate legal entity from a corporation, which states that a corporation has its own existence distinct from its members. Thus, this concept protects shareholders from personal liability for the injustice and obligations of the company. In other words, unlike the partnership, the liability of its members of the company is limited, which means that if a company commits something wrong, the members of the company cannot be held responsible for those mistakes. A legal person who is not a human being but who, for specific purposes, is considered a natural person as of right. A company recognized by law as a legal entity. In legal proceedings concerning animals, animals have the status of “legal person” and humans have a legal obligation to act as “loco parentis” towards animal welfare, as a parent has done towards minor children. A court that ruled in the Animal Welfare Board of India vs Nagaraja case in 2014 ordered that animals also have the right to the fundamental right to liberty enshrined in Article 21 of the Indian Constitution, i.e. the right to life, personal liberty and the right to die with dignity (passive euthanasia). In another case, a court in the state of Uttarakhand ordered that animals have the same rights as humans. In another case of cow smuggling, the Supreme Court of Punjab and Haryana ordered that “the entire animal kingdom, including bird and water species”, have an “independent legal personality with the appropriate rights, duties and duties of a living person” and that people be “loco parentis” while setting animal welfare standards, veterinary treatment, food and shelter, e.g. pet carts may not have more than four people, and goods transport animals must not be loaded beyond the established limits and these limit values must be halved if the animals are to carry the load on a slope.
 Subsection 2(20) of the Companies Act, 2013 defines a corporation incorporated under this Act or a previous Companies Act. A corporation carries out its day-to-day operations under the Companies Act 2013, which states that a corporation is a legal entity that establishes a natural person or various persons to make a profit through its business activities. A legal or artificial person (Latin: persona ficta; also a legal person) has a legal name and has certain rights, property rights, privileges, responsibilities and responsibilities in law, similar to those of a natural person. The concept of legal entity is a fundamental legal fiction. It is relevant to the philosophy of law because it is essential for laws that affect a company (company law). Follow us on Instagram and subscribe to our YouTube channel for more amazing legal content. All this means that a company that is a separate legal entity from its members can enter into a contract to do business on its own behalf. A shareholder cannot enforce an agreement entered into by his company; It is not a party and does not have the right to profit from it, because the company is not a trustee of its shareholders.
Similarly, shareholders cannot be sued for contracts concluded by his company. The distinction between a company and its members is not limited to the rules of privacy, but permeates the whole of contract law. Therefore, if a director does not disclose a breach of his or her obligations to his or her corporation and, therefore, a shareholder enters into an agreement with the director on behalf of the corporation, the shareholder will not enter into the agreement if he or she discloses it. The shareholder cannot terminate the contract. A. If your company is a legal entity, it has legal capacity. This means that a company can make decisions, go into debt and close deals. A business may also own assets and assets, such as business assets such as trucks and equipment.
Some common law jurisdictions distinguish between an aggregate of a corporation (e.g., a corporation composed of a number of members) and an individual corporation, which is a public office with separate legal personality from the person holding the office (the two corporations have separate legal personality). Historically, most businesses have been exclusively ecclesiastical in nature (for example, the office of the Archbishop of Canterbury is a single body), but a number of other public offices are now established as sole proprietorships. A company is considered an artificial person for the process service. The concept of legal personality is not absolute. “Piercing the corporate veil” means the consideration of natural persons acting as agents involved in a corporate act or decision; This may give rise to a court decision in which the rights or obligations of a company or public limited company are treated as rights or obligations of the members or directors of that company. A business can end up by liquidation, and other factors such as the death or retirement of a person have no bearing on the existence of the business. Permanent succession means that the composition of the company may change from time to time, but this does not affect its continuity. Membership in a corporation may change because a shareholder has sold or transferred his or her shares to another person or his or her shares are transferred to his or her legal representative after his or her death or because the shareholder lost his or her termination of membership under other provisions of the Business Corporations Act.
Thus, eternal succession refers to the ability of a company to maintain its existence by succeeding new people who put themselves in the shoes of those who cease to be members of the company. An example could be that during the war, all members of a private company were bombed at a shareholders` meeting, but the company survived. All this does not affect the existence of the company. An artificial person is sometimes referred to in the law as a legal person, a fictitious person, a legal person, a legal person or a legal person. In the common law tradition, only one person could have legal rights. To enable them to function, the legal personality of a company was created to include five legal rights – the right to a common treasury or safe (including the right of ownership), the right to a corporate seal (i.e. the right to enter into and sign contracts), the right to sue and be sued (to enforce contracts), the right to hire agents (employees) and the right to enact legislation (self-government).  While natural persons “naturally” acquire legal personality by simply being born (or before that, in some jurisdictions), legal persons must have received legal personality through an “unnatural” legal procedure, and for this reason they are sometimes referred to as “artificial” persons. In the most common case (incorporation of a company), legal personality is usually acquired by registering with a government body created for this purpose. In other cases, it may be a primary law: an example is the Charity Commission in the UK.  The United Nations` Sustainable Development Goal 16 commits to providing legal identity for all, including birth registration by 2030 as part of the 2030 Agenda.  Legal entities are entities such as corporations, corporations (in some jurisdictions), and many government agencies.
They are legally treated as if they were people.    In Premlata Bhatia v. Union of India (2004), the Court concluded that shareholders could not request that the veil be lifted for their own purposes. In this case, the premises of the branch are allocated to the individual licensees per license. She founded a completely private company, to which she transferred the premises without government permission. She cannot eliminate illegality by saying that she and her company are practically the same person. Since the 19th century, the legal entity has been interpreted in such a way as to make it a citizen, resident or resident of a state (usually for purposes of personal jurisdiction). In Louisville, C. & C.R. Co.
v. Letson, 2 How. 497, 558, 11 L.Ed. 353 (1844), the U.S. Supreme Court has held that, for the purposes of this case, an enterprise “is likely to be treated as a citizen [of the State that created it] in the same manner as a natural person.” Ten years later, they reaffirmed Letson`s conclusion, albeit on the slightly different theory that “those who use the company`s name and exercise the powers it confers” should be conclusively considered citizens of the company`s founding state. Marshall v. Baltimore & Ohio R. Co., 16 How. 314, 329, 14 L.Ed.
953 (1854). These concepts have been codified by law because U.S. jurisdiction laws refer specifically to the corporate headquarters. A corporation is treated as a separate legal entity from its member under the Companies Act, 2013. Therefore, the company is only liable for the shares of a company, with the exception of illegal acts of the shareholders or directors of the company. The term “legal person” can be ambiguous as it is often used as a synonym for terms that refer only to non-human legal persons, in particular as opposed to “natural person”.   In legal proceedings concerning corporations, shareholders are not liable for the debts of the corporation, but the corporation itself, as a “legal person,” is obligated to repay those debts or to be sued for non-repayment of debts.  The word “society” comes from Latin (com = with or together; panis = bread) and originally referred to a group of people eating together.